"United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government ...." If Alabama refuses to implement the orders of the court, had it forfeited its republican form of government? See Baker-Carr (1962) Part IV for detailed exposition of the Guaranty-Clause.


Notable Items:

Petitioner: Wes Allen, Alabama Secretary of State, et al.,
Respondent: Evan Milligan, Marcus Caster, et al.
Venue: Supreme Court of the United States
Opinion of the Court: Allen-Milligan (2023) Affirmed.

Issue(s) Before the Court:

whether the districting plan adopted by the State of Alabama for its 2022 congressional elections likely violated §2 of the Voting Rights Act, 52 U. S. C. §10301.

Petitioner's Claim(s):

Respondent's Claim(s):

Holding(s) and Disposition:

Held: Affirmed. The Court affirms the District Court’s determination that plaintiffs demonstrated a reasonable likelihood of success on their claim that [Alabama] HB1 violates [VRA] §2.

Material Facts:

Procedural History:


Roberts Majority Opinion (Sotomayor, Kagan, Jackson, Kavanaugh but for III-B-1)

Kavanaugh Concurrance in part, dissent in part (III-B-1)

Thomas Dissent (Gorsuch, Barrett, Alito, all in part)

Alito Dissent (Gorsuch)

Claims that Gingles as understood by the court makes race predominant factor in decision, not "totality of circumstances". Race is the basis of the Gingles preconditions. The preconditions must be met in order to bring an action.

Majority Full Argument