Understanding Instance Mapping

Cricket has a nifty feature called instance mapping. Basically it's meant to take the busywork out of monitoring SNMP devices. In this document, you'll learn far more than you ever wanted to know about it.

The Problem

In the SNMP world, when something is stored in a table, each table row has a number. These numbers, called instance numbers, are used to reference the rows. Since routers typically have lots of interfaces, they are stored in a table, indexed by these instance numbers. I can ask a router to give me the traffic measurements from row number 4, and it will know what I mean and go do it. However, when we humans think about router interfaces, we don't think about instance numbers. We think about some other identifier for the row, like the interface name or the IP address.

Interface mapping lets you configure Cricket to talk to devices based on one of the other keys in this table. The mapping part comes in when Cricket turns the key you give it into an instance number. It does this in an efficient way, which is guaranteed to be right no matter what kind of row re-arranging goes on on the router. (It seems cruel, but they are allowed to re-arrange their rows at any time. This would presumably not be part of what makes SNMP "simple".)

What does this mean to me?

Nothing, as long as you are using the sample config tree's router-interface subtree. It comes ready to automatically do interface mapping using the interface's name as a key. When you use listInterfaces to make an interfaces file, it will set the "interface-name" tag for you, and Cricket will use that to do the instance mapping automatically.

On the other hand, if you want to setup Cricket to use a different key (say, the IP address, or maybe the human-readable descriptions Cisco routers support), or to monitor something else via SNMP that lives in tables, then you need to read on and understand the map dictionary, and how it is used to control the interface mapping algorithm.

The Icky Details

When Cricket comes across an instance number which looks like map(interface-name), then it knows that instead of using a hard-coded instance number, or an instance set, it will be using the instance mapping code to find the instance number. It uses the part inside the parenthesis ("interface-name" in the case above) to find an entry in the map dictionary that it can use to help map the given key to an instance number.

There are two interesting tags in a map entry that control this process. The first is the baseOID, which tells Cricket which column of which table it is going to be looking through to find the match. For the interface-name map, this is set to "ifDescr". Cricket will look up the name "ifDescr" in the OID table, and will use the resulting OID as the base-oid for an SNMP walk of the table. The other interesting tag is match, which is a string that the fetched column will be compared to. This string is expanded with respect to the target dictionary, so you can use the "%tag%" syntax there. In the sample config, we compare the ifDescr column of the interface table to "%interface-name%", which gets expanded to the current value of the the tag interface-name in the current target. If the string starts and ends with the slash character, then it is used as a Perl regular expression and a case-insensitive RE match is done, instead of a simple string match. Use this feature only when necessary. A string match is preferable, since it has less overhead.

The system is efficient and accurate. It uses a file sitting right next to your RRD file to store the last-used index (avoiding gratuitous table-scans) and uses an internal cache to minimize table-scans, should they be necessary. It is accurate because every time Cricket fetches data using a cached instance number, it also fetches the key in the same packet. If the key no longer matches, then the cache is invalidated, a table-scan is done to map the instance number, and the data is re-fetched using the new instance number. The maximum cost of this system is one table-scan per host anytime an instance changes, and one extra variable fetched per target.

Instance mapping is only enabled when the inst tag starts with "map(". This means that hard-coded instances and instance ranges are still completely supported, if you are not ready to use the instance mapping feature.

The Ickiest Details

The SNMP queries done by the instance mapping algorithm are implemented semi-independently from the rest of Cricket's datasource management code. This is partly because it was easier to implement that way, and partly because instance mapping is an intrinsically SNMP-thing, and it probably will never make sense to talk about using instance mapping with an exec datasource.

When it comes time to do a table scan, the instance mapping code uses the tag named snmp from the current target to find the community string, host, and port for the SNMP transaction. As discussed above, the snmp tag, by convention, has the community string, host, and port in it in a format ready to plug into SNMP ds-sources. Thus, even if you've come up with a different way to encode community string, host, and port into your datasources, you still need to have a tag named snmp for the instance mapping code to use.

The moral of the story is to try very hard to not mess with the sample-config tree. (The quote "Though this be madness, let there be a method in it." comes to mind...) It's setup the way it is for a reason, and though you may be able to make it more efficient in some ways, you won't end up with a config tree that is as flexible and broadly-applicable. Thus, I might do something later which breaks your config tree without meaning to do so. And I won't feel very sorry about it, now that you know better.

Cricket version 1.0.2, released 2000-05-19.

Copyright (C) 1998-2000 Jeff Allen. Cricket is released under the GNU General Public License.